2016年7月18日 星期一

Nothing Goes to Waste in India 物盡其用

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2016/07/19 第272期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

Nothing Goes to Waste in India 物盡其用
by Bruce E. Bagnell

What is unimaginable in other areas of the world is part of everyday life in Hindu India.

  You can buy just about anything online these days. Major online retailers in China, India, and the West are doing a booming business taking orders from Internet customers and having them delivered directly to their homes. Though India is still a poor country, it hasn't stopped the boom of using online services to place orders, especially for city residents. That includes, of all things, cow dung patties.
  If you know anything about Hindu India, you shouldn't be surprised, though. Cows have been worshipped by Hindus for millennia. The sacredness of cows even includes their poop, which is an environmentally friendly source of fertilizer and can be used to light fires for cooking. Raw dung is mixed with dry hay and then pounded into a hamburger-patty shape. Hundreds of millions of cattle wander around the country, unbothered by this religious nation, and millions more are raised for transportation, milk, and dung. Cows feature prominently in many religious ceremonies, such as Diwali and Lohri. Many Indians are vegetarians, so, unlike most other countries, cattle are normally not slaughtered for their meat or skin. Some Hindu castes and Muslims are free from this restriction, though.
  Most of the orders for dung cakes come from city residents, who are too busy to scavenge for cow poop in the streets or who have too little space to raise such a huge animal. Many were born and raised in the countryside, where religious traditions are greatly respected. They want to continue observing their childhood festivals, most of which include the burning of cow patties. Thus, they turn to online retailers to meet their needs. Imagine receiving a Lohri New Year's present of cow dung patties, gift-wrapped, no less, from Amazon or eBay!

1. What is this reading mainly about?
(A) Important religious festivals in India.
(B) The use of cow dung by Hindus.
(C) The online retailing business in India.
(D) Differences between rural and urban Indians.
2. What is said about online retailing in India?
(A) Because India is a poor country, there is little of it.
(B) Only urban residents can take advantage of it.
(C) It is available only during religious festivals.
(D) It is growing very quickly.
3. Which of the following is true about Hindus, according to the reading?
(A) They specialize in making leather crafts.
(B) They practice the same traditions as Muslims.
(C) They have made and eaten cow dung patties for millennia.
(D) They worship and protect their cattle.
4. Why do many city residents in India rely on the Internet to buy cow dung patties?
(A) They want to show others how technically proficient they are.
(B) They want to show others how rich they are.
(C) It is much more convenient to do so.
(D) They refuse to approach cows because of their religion.


Hindu a. 印度(教)的 & n. 印度教徒
online retailer  線上零售商
retailer n. 零售商
boom n. 繁榮,興旺(本文喻為熱潮)
dung n.(動物的)糞便
millennia n. 千禧年(複數形)
衍: millennium n. 千禧年(單數形)
sacredness n. 神聖
衍: sacred a. 神聖的
a sacred cow  不容質疑的信念/習俗
fertilizer n. 肥料
衍: fertilize vt. 施肥於;使受孕
hay n. 乾草
caste n. 種姓;種姓制度;社會階級
gift-wrapped a. 包裝成禮品的
wrap vt. 包;裹 & n. 包裝紙;保鮮膜(不可數名詞)

  1. go to waste  被浪費掉
    I always eat everything on my plate because I was taught not to let food go to waste.
  2. just about...  幾乎……;差不多……
    Teenagers tend to disagree with their parents on just about everything.
  3. take an order  接受訂單
    order n. 訂貨;訂購
    衍: place an order  下訂單
    We took an order for a jacuzzi at the store today.
    *jacuzzi n. 按摩浴缸
    Laura placed an order for bathroom furniture one month ago.
  4. wander around(...)  (在……附近)閒晃
    It is dangerous to wander around the city at night.
  5. be free from / of...  免於/沒有……
    No one is free from faults.
  6. turn to...  求助於……;轉而(做)……
    Some of my friends are turning to private tutors to get ahead at school.
    *get ahead  領先
  7. no less  還是,竟是
    The award was presented by the president, no less.
  8. take advantage of...  利用……
    同: make use of...
    The wise take advantage of mistakes, whereas the stupid only regret mistakes they have made.
  9. specialize in...  專攻/專門從事……
    specialize vi. 專攻
    Our society specializes in helping children from underprivileged homes.
    *underprivileged a. 弱勢的

... and having them delivered directly to their homes.
have 當使役動詞時,有下列三種用法:
have + 受詞 + 過去分詞  把……(被)……
have + 人 + 原形動詞  叫/使某人(做)……
have + 受詞 + V-ing  使/讓……一直(做)……
Last week, I had a tooth taken out at the dentist's.
I will have Rick wash my car.
The language teacher has his students speaking English through the entire class.

  1. booming a. 蓬勃發展的
    衍: boom vi. 繁榮,蓬勃發展
    The booming business led the manager to believe he needed to hire more employees.
    Our restaurant business is still booming despite the economic slowdown this year.
  2. patty n. 肉餅
    The fast food restaurant announced a new sandwich that is a fried chicken patty served between two pancake buns with maple syrup.
    *bun n. 小圓麵包(可數)
    maple syrup  楓糖漿
    syrup n. 糖漿
  3. worship vt. 敬奉(神);景仰 & n. 信奉
    Muslims worship five times a day in the direction of Mecca.
  4. environmentally friendly  環保的
    The toy factory is phasing out petroleum-based plastic toys in search of an environmentally friendly alternative.
    *phase out...  逐漸淘汰……,逐步撤出……
    petroleum-based  石油製造的,石化的
    alternative n. 替代方案
  5. raw a. 生的,未煮熟的
    Some vegetables can be eaten raw.
  6. pound vt. & vi. 猛打/擊 & n. 磅(重量單位);英鎊(貨幣單位)
    The boxer pounded his opponent again and again.
    My brother pounded on the door with his fists because he was locked outside.
  7. cattle n. 牛群(cattle 如同 people,視作複數名詞,可被 two 以上的數詞如 three、four、many 等修飾)
    衍: a herd of cattle  一群牛
    There are many cattle in the field.
    Due to mad cow disease, many cattle ranches have suffered great losses.
    *mad cow disease  狂牛病
    ranch n. 牧場,農場
  8. prominently adv. 顯著地
    My photo features prominently on the cover of the magazine.
  9. slaughter vt. 屠宰 & n. 屠殺,殺戮
    Greenpeace condemned those people for slaughtering whales.
    *condemn vt. 譴責,指責
  10. scavenge vi. & vt. 尋找(食物);在廢棄中找尋(可食用或可用的東西)
    The stray dog scavenged the garbage pile looking for food.
  11. observe vt. 遵守(規則、習俗等);慶祝(節日等)
    It's our duty to observe the law. No one should be an exception.
    Most people observe Thanksgiving by having a feast.
  12. proficient a. 精通的
    衍: be proficient in / at N/V-ing  精通……
    = be adept in / at N/V-ing
    It took Peter years of hard work to be proficient in Mandarin and Japanese.

  大多數的牛糞餅訂單來自城市居民,他們通常太忙碌而無暇撿拾街上的牛糞,抑或是他們沒有足夠的空間飼養如此龐大的動物。許多人生長在對宗教傳統相當敬重的鄉下。他們想要繼續奉行童年時的節慶,而大部份的節慶皆包含燃燒牛糞餅。因此,他們求助於線上零售商來滿足他們的需求。想像一下你收到包裝成禮品的牛糞餅作為豐年祭新年禮物,且竟是從 Amazon 或 eBay 寄來的!

1. 本文的主旨為何?
(A) 印度重要的宗教節慶。
(B) 印度教徒對牛糞的使用。
(C) 印度的線上零售業。
(D) 鄉下與城市印度人的不同。
題解:全文皆在描述印度教徒對牛糞的使用,故 (B) 項應為正選。
2. 本文對印度線上零售業的敘述為何?
(A) 因為印度是個貧窮國家,所以幾乎沒有。
(B) 僅有城市居民可以使用它。
(C) 僅在宗教節日期間可以使用。
(D) 它發展得相當迅速。
題解:根據本文第一段,儘管印度仍是一個貧困的國家,但這並未讓使用線上服務進行訂購的這股熱潮就此停頓,尤其是城市居民,得知印度的線上零售發展迅速,故 (D) 項應為正選。
3. 根據本文,下列哪一項有關印度教徒的敘述是正確的?
(A) 他們擅長製作皮革工藝品。
(B) 他們遵循和回教徒一樣的傳統。
(C) 他們製作並食用牛糞餅已有千年之久。
(D) 他們敬奉且保護他們的牛隻。
題解:根據本文第二段,印度教徒敬奉牛已有數千年之久。此外,數億頭牛在該國四處漫步,不受這虔誠的民族所打擾,得知印度教徒對牛隻的敬奉程度相當高,故 (D) 項應為正選。
4. 為什麼許多印度城市居民仰賴網路購買牛糞餅?
(A) 他們想向他人展現自己在技術上有多麼純熟。
(B) 他們想向他人展現自己有多麼富裕。
(C) 這麼做方便得多。
(D) 他們因為宗教的關係而拒絕靠近牛隻。
題解:根據本文最後一段,大多數的牛糞餅訂單來自城市居民,他們通常太忙碌而無暇撿拾街上的牛糞,抑或是他們沒有足夠的空間飼養如此龐大的動物,得知線上訂購能替城市居民省下許多麻煩,故 (C) 項應為正選。
答案: 1. B 2. D 3. D 4. C



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