2018年6月7日 星期四

When Spies Hack Journalism 當間諜駭入新聞界

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2018/06/08 第218期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 When Spies Hack Journalism 當間諜駭入新聞界
Deep-Red Alaska, Feeling Thaw, Devises Climate Change Plan 深紅阿拉斯加 因應氣候變遷
Jo Nesb�� Reimagines 'Macbeth' 奈斯博版《馬克白》 黑色犯罪故事
When Spies Hack Journalism 當間諜駭入新聞界
文/Scott Shane

For decades, leakers of confidential information to the press were a genus that included many species: the government worker infuriated by wrongdoing, the ideologue pushing a particular line, the politico out to savage an opponent. In recent years, technology has helped such leakers operate on a mass scale: Chelsea Manning and the WikiLeaks diplomatic cables, Edward Snowden and the stolen National Security Agency archive, and the still-anonymous source of the Panama Papers.

But now this disparate cast has been joined by a very different sort of large-scale leaker, more stealthy and better funded: the intelligence services of nation states, which hack into troves of documents and then use a proxy to release them. What Russian intelligence did with shocking success to the Democrats in 2016 shows every promise of becoming a common tool of spycraft around the world.



In 2014, North Korea, angry about a movie, hacked Sony and aired thousands of internal emails. Since then, Russia has used the hack-leak method in countries across Europe. The United Arab Emirates and Qatar, Persian Gulf rivals, have accused each other of tit-for-tat hacks, leaks and online sabotage. Other spy services are suspected in additional disclosures, but spies are skilled at hiding their tracks.

"It's clear that nation states are looking at these mass leaks and seeing how successful they are," said Matt Tait, a cyber expert at the University of Texas who previously worked at Government Communications Headquarters, the British equivalent of the National Security Agency.



What does this mean for journalism? The old rules say that if news organizations obtain material they deem both authentic and newsworthy, they should run it. But those conventions may set reporters up for spy agencies to manipulate what and when they publish, with an added danger: An archive of genuine material may be seeded with slick forgeries.

This quandary is raised with emotional force by my colleague Amy Chozick in her new book about covering Hillary Clinton. She recounts reading a New York Times story about the Russian hack of the Democrats that said The Times and other outlets, by publishing stories based on the hacked material, became "a de facto instrument of Russian intelligence." She felt terrible, she reports, because she thought she was guilty as charged.

Others hurried to reassure Chozick that she and hundreds of other reporters who covered the leaked emails were simply doing their jobs. "The primary question a journalist must ask himself is whether or not the information is true and relevant," wrote Jack Shafer, the media critic for Politico, "and certainly not whether it might make Moscow happy."



其他人急忙安慰丘齊克,她和數百位採訪外洩電子郵件新聞的記者,只是盡職而已。 Politico媒體評論家傑克.薛佛寫道:「記者必須問自己的首要問題是,這些資料是否屬實以及是否相關,絕不會是這樣做會不會讓莫斯科高與。」

Deep-Red Alaska, Feeling Thaw, Devises Climate Change Plan 深紅阿拉斯加 因應氣候變遷
文/Brad Plumer

In the Trump era, it has mainly been blue states that have taken the lead on climate change policy, with liberal strongholds like California and New York setting ambitious goals for cutting greenhouse gas emissions.

Now, at least one deep-red state could soon join them: Alaska, a major oil and gas producer, is creating its own plan to address climate change. Ideas under discussion include cuts in state emissions by 2025 and a tax on companies that emit carbon dioxide.



While many conservative-leaning states have resisted aggressive climate policies, Alaska is already seeing the dramatic effects of global warming firsthand, making the issue difficult for local politicians to avoid. The solid permafrost that sits beneath many roads, buildings and pipelines is starting to thaw, destabilizing the infrastructure above. At least 31 coastal towns and cities may need to relocate, at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars, as protective sea ice vanishes and fierce waves erode Alaska's shores.

"The change has been so real and so widespread that it's become impossible to ignore," Byron Mallott, the state's Democratic lieutenant governor, said while visiting Washington to discuss climate policy. "Folks are realizing that it's something we have to deal with."



The state is still finalizing its climate strategy. In October, Gov. Bill Walker, a former Republican who won election as an independent in 2014, created a task force headed by Mallott that would propose specific policies to reduce emissions and help the state adapt to the impacts of global warming. The recommendations are due by September.

In addressing climate change, Alaska will have to grapple with its own deep contradictions. Roughly 85 percent of the state's budget is funded by revenues from the production of oil, which is primarily exported to the rest of the United States, and local politicians have largely been unwilling to curtail the supply of fossil fuels. Both Walker and Mallott supported the recent decision by Congress to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and gas exploration, a move opposed by environmentalists.



"The state will continue to be an energy producer for as long as there is a market for fossil fuels," the men wrote in a recent Op-Ed for The Juneau Empire. But, they added, "We should not use our role as an energy producer to justify inaction or complacency in our response to the complex challenge of climate change."

To that end, the state's climate task force released a draft in April that included a proposal for Alaska to get 50 percent of its electricity from renewable sources like solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal by 2025, up from 33 percent in 2016.





文章一開始即提及美國的藍州(blue states),指的是民主黨勢力較強的州,紅色則是共和黨的代表色,因此共和黨勢力較強的州是紅州(red states)。本文主角阿拉斯加州被標識為深紅(deep-red),表示一向是共和黨的票倉,也是支持現任美國總統川普的州。文章特別提及阿拉斯加州的政治色彩,旨在強調該州與不相信氣候變遷(climate change)的川普背道而馳,正設法制定包括減排(emissions cuts)二氧化碳(carbon dioxide)在內的政策。

阿拉斯加州地底下的永凍層(permafrost)已開始融化(thaw), 是該州積極制定氣候變遷政策主因。永凍層指的是超過2年維持在攝氏零度以下低溫的土層。thaw可作動詞或名詞用,意為融化、融解、融雪。thaw也可指關係解凍,食物解凍,如The icy relationship between North Korea and South Korea seems to be thawing thanks to the Winter Olympics.(由於冬季奧運會,北韓和南韓之間的冰冷關係似乎正在解凍。)There are many ways to safely thaw frozen foods.(有許多方法可安全解凍冷凍食物。)

Jo Nesb�� Reimagines 'Macbeth' 奈斯博版《馬克白》 黑色犯罪故事
文/James Shapiro

In 1937, The New Yorker published James Thurber's "The Macbeth Murder Mystery," about an avid reader of Agatha Christie who picks up a paperback copy of "Macbeth," mistakenly assuming it's a detective story. She soon discovers it's a Shakespeare play but is already hooked and reads it as a whodunit. It takes her a while to identify who killed Duncan, after initially refusing to believe the Macbeths were responsible: "You suspect them the most, of course, but those are the ones that are never guilty — or shouldn't be, anyway." Her prime suspect had been Banquo, but "then, of course, he was the second person killed. That was good right in there, that part. The person you suspect of the first murder should always be the second victim."

It's a very funny story and an insightful one, for Thurber shows how closely Shakespeare's tragedy follows the contours of detective fiction. Thurber wasn't the first to draw such connections; over a century earlier, in a brilliant essay about the play — "On the Knocking at the Gate in 'Macbeth'" — Thomas De Quincey had reflected on how deeply Shakespeare understood the interplay of murder and suspense. If the many allusions to "Macbeth" in the works of Agatha Christie, Dorothy Sayers, P.D. James and other crime writers are any indication, Shakespeare's play may be seen as one of the great progenitors of the genre, making Jo Nesb��, the celebrated Norwegian writer of thrillers, an ideal choice to update the play for Hogarth Shakespeare, a series in which best-selling novelists turn Shakespeare's works into contemporary fiction.


這是極其有趣且饒富洞察力的一本小說,因為瑟伯說明,莎翁的悲劇和偵探小說的情節有多麼相近。瑟伯不是建立這項關聯的第一人;一個多世紀前,在討論這部戲劇的一篇精彩文章〈論馬克白大門上的敲門聲〉中, 托馬斯.德昆西即對莎翁深諳謀殺與懸疑的相互作用多所著墨。阿嘉莎.克莉絲蒂、桃樂絲.榭爾絲、P.D. 詹姆斯和其他犯罪故事作家的作品中,都有許多與《馬克白》相關的影射,若說這些影射有任何意義,它代表莎翁的劇作可視為這類作品的一大始祖,挪威知名驚悚作家尤.奈斯博也因此成為《挑戰莎士比亞系列》中,重新改寫莎翁這部名劇的理想人選。《挑戰莎士比亞系列》是英國霍加斯出版社發行的系列產品,邀請暢銷小說家將莎翁作品改寫成當代小說。

Nesb�� has spoken of finding himself on familiar terrain here, arguing that "Macbeth" is essentially a "thriller about the struggle for power" that takes place "in a gloomy, stormy crime noir-like setting and in a dark, paranoid human mind." True enough, yet many features of this 400-year-old tragedy don't easily fit the demands of a modern, realistic thriller. One of the pleasures of reading this book is watching Nesb�� meet the formidable challenge of assimilating elements of the play unsuited to realistic crime fiction, especially the supernatural: the witches, prophecies, visions, and the mysterious figure of Hecate.

Nesb��'s most consequential decision was when and where to set his story. While he follows Shakespeare in locating it in Scotland, rather than taking us back to the 11th century he places it in the early 1970s. He doesn't name the city, though there are many hints that it's Glasgow. This choice signals Nesb��'s ambitions for his novel, giving it a sharp social edge as well as a timely political resonance.




音樂會中鈴聲來攪局 交響樂團的逆襲
音樂會中擾人的手機鈴聲是最令人生氣,根本就是音樂會的天敵!一場於林肯中心演出的音樂會中,指揮 Wes Kenney 帶領柯林斯堡交響樂團演出由作曲家 Jim David 所創作的管弦樂作品「iCanon」 針對這惱人的現象做出反擊。
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